In the mid 1970s, Ben Essenburg, a Dutch-Chicago garbage man, began several renegade Bible studies that grew unexpectedly into Fountain of Life, a non-denominational church that would eventually have over 400 members. This was concurrent with a larger Christian happening known as the Charismatic Movement (or the Jesus Movement). The people of this movement threw off a great many of the rules and traditions of the historical church and believed in controversial, supernatural powers called the "Gifts of the Spirit;" a concept that had been rejected by the established church of the time. Though many of the charismatic churches failed due to poor and inexperienced leadership, those that survived, such as Fountain of Life, are today’s mold for many successful modern churches.